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Excerpt from above true-PDF:
GB 4943.1-2022
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 35.020
CCS L 09
Replacing GB 4943.1-2011, GB 8898-2011
Audio/video, information and communication technology
equipment - Part 1: Safety requirements
(IEC 62368-1:2018, MOD)
ISSUED ON: JULY 19, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: AUGUST 01, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 17 
Introduction ... 24 
0.1 Objective ... 24 
0.2 Persons ... 24 
0.2.1 General ... 24 
0.2.2 Ordinary person ... 24 
0.2.3 Instructed person ... 24 
0.2.4 Skilled person ... 25 
0.3 Model for pain and injury ... 25 
0.4 Energy sources ... 26 
0.5 Safeguards ... 27 
0.5.1 General ... 27 
0.5.2 Equipment safeguard ... 28 
0.5.3 Installation safeguard ... 28 
0.5.4 Personal safeguard ... 29 
0.5.5 Behavioural safeguards ... 29 
0.5.6 Safeguards during ordinary or instructed person service conditions ... 30 
0.5.7 Equipment safeguards during skilled person service conditions ... 30 
0.5.8 Examples of safeguard characteristics ... 31 
0.6 Electrically-caused pain or injury (electric shock) ... 31 
0.6.1 Models for electrically-caused pain or injury ... 31 
0.6.2 Models for protection against electrically-caused pain or injury ... 32 
0.7 Electrically-caused fire ... 33 
0.7.1 Models for electrically-caused fire ... 33 
0.7.2 Models for protection against electrically-caused fire ... 34 
0.8 Injury caused by hazardous substances ... 35 
0.9 Mechanically-caused injury ... 36 
0.10 Thermally-caused injury (skin burn) ... 37 
0.10.1 Models for thermally-caused injury ... 37 
0.10.2 Models for protection against thermally-caused pain or injury ... 38 
0.11 Radiation-caused injury ... 39 
0.12 Description of relevant information ... 40 
1 Scope ... 41 
2 Normative references ... 43 
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ... 54 
3.1 Energy source abbreviations ... 54 
3.2 Other abbreviations ... 55 
3.3 Terms and definitions ... 56 
3.3.1 Circuit terms ... 60 
3.3.2 Enclosure terms ... 60 
3.3.3 Equipment terms ... 61 
3.3.4 Flammability terms ... 64 
3.3.5 Electrical insulation ... 66 
3.3.6 Miscellaneous ... 67 
3.3.7 Operating and fault conditions ... 70 
3.3.8 Persons ... 72 
3.3.9 Potential ignition sources ... 72 
3.3.10 Ratings ... 73 
3.3.11 Safeguards ... 74 
3.3.12 Spacings ... 77 
3.3.13 Temperature controls ... 77 
3.3.14 Voltages and currents ... 78 
3.3.15 Classes of equipment with respect to protection from electric shock ... 79 
3.3.16 Chemical terms ... 80 
3.3.17 Batteries ... 81 
3.3.18 FIW terms ... 82 
3.3.19 Sound exposure ... 83 
4 General requirements ... 84 
4.1 General ... 84 
4.1.1 Application of requirements and acceptance of materials, components and
subassemblies ... 84 
4.1.2 Use of components ... 84 
4.1.3 Equipment design and construction ... 85 
4.1.4 Equipment installation ... 85 
4.1.5 Constructions and components not specifically covered ... 86 
4.1.6 Orientation during transport and use ... 86 
4.1.7 Choice of criteria ... 86 
4.1.8 Liquids and liquid filled components (LFC) ... 86 
4.1.9 Electrical measuring instruments ... 87 
4.1.10 Temperature measurements ... 87 
4.1.11 Steady state conditions ... 87 
4.1.12 Hierarchy of safeguards ... 87 
4.1.13 Examples mentioned in this document ... 88 
4.1.14 Tests on parts or samples separate from the end-product ... 88 
4.1.15 Markings and instructions ... 88 
4.2 Energy source classifications ... 88 
4.2.1 Class 1 energy source ... 88 
4.2.2 Class 2 energy source ... 89 
4.2.3 Class 3 energy source ... 89 
4.2.4 Energy source classification by declaration ... 89 
4.3 Protection against energy sources ... 89 
4.3.1 General ... 89 
4.3.2 Safeguards for protection of an ordinary person ... 89 
4.3.3 Safeguards for protection of an instructed person ... 91 
4.3.4 Safeguards for protection of a skilled person ... 92 
4.3.5 Safeguards in a restricted access area ... 94 
4.4 Safeguards ... 94 
4.4.1 Equivalent materials or components ... 94 
4.4.2 Composition of a safeguard ... 94 
4.4.3 Safeguard robustness ... 94 
4.4.4 Displacement of a safeguard by an insulating liquid ... 97 
4.4.5 Safety interlocks ... 98 
4.5 Explosion ... 98 
4.5.1 General ... 98 
4.5.2 Requirements ... 98 
4.6 Fixing of conductors ... 99 
4.6.1 Requirements ... 99 
4.6.2 Compliance criteria ... 99 
4.7 Equipment for direct insertion into mains socket-outlets ... 100 
4.7.1 General ... 100 
4.7.2 Requirements ... 100 
4.7.3 Compliance criteria ... 100 
4.8 Equipment containing coin / button cell batteries ... 100 
4.8.1 General ... 100 
4.8.2 Instructional safeguard ... 101 
4.8.3 Construction ... 101 
4.8.4 Tests ... 101 
4.8.5 Compliance criteria ... 103 
4.9 Likelihood of fire or shock due to entry of conductive objects ... 103 
4.10 Components requirements ... 104 
4.10.1 Disconnect device ... 104 
4.10.2 Switches and relays ... 104 
4.11 Overcurrent protective device ... 104 
5 Electrically-caused injury ... 104 
5.1 General ... 104 
5.2 Classification and limits of electrical energy sources ... 104 
5.2.1 Electrical energy source classifications ... 104 
5.2.2 Electrical energy source ES1 and ES2 limits ... 105 
5.3 Protection against electrical energy sources ... 111 
5.3.1 General ... 111 
5.3.2 Accessibility to electrical energy sources and safeguards ... 111 
5.4 Insulation materials and requirements ... 115 
5.4.1 General ... 115 
5.4.2 Clearances ... 122 
5.4.3 Creepage distances ... 134 
5.4.4 Solid insulation ... 139 
5.4.5 Antenna terminal insulation ... 151 
5.4.6 Insulation of internal wire as a part of a supplementary safeguard ... 152 
5.4.7 Tests for semiconductor components and for cemented joints ... 153 
5.4.8 Humidity conditioning ... 153 
5.4.9 Electric strength test ... 154 
5.4.10 Safeguards against transient voltages from external circuits ... 158 
5.4.11 Separation between external circuits and earth ... 160 
5.4.12 Insulating liquid ... 162 
5.5 Components as safeguards ... 163 
5.5.1 General ... 163 
5.5.2 Capacitors and RC units ... 164 
5.5.3 Transformers ... 165 
5.5.4 Optocouplers ... 166 
5.5.5 Relays ... 166 
5.5.6 Resistors ... 166 
5.5.7 SPD ... 167 
5.5.8 Insulation between the mains and an external circuit consisting of a coaxial cable
... 167 
5.5.9 Safeguards for socket-outlets in outdoor equipment ... 168 
5.6 Protective conductor ... 168 
5.6.1 General ... 168 
5.6.2 Requirements for protective conductors ... 169 
5.6.3 Requirements for protective earthing conductors ... 170 
5.6.4 Requirements for protective bonding conductors ... 171 
5.6.5 Terminals for protective conductors ... 174 
5.6.6 Resistance of the protective bonding system ... 175 
5.6.7 Reliable connection of a protective earthing conductor ... 177 
5.6.8 Functional earthing ... 178 
5.7 Prospective touch voltage, touch current and protective conductor current ... 178 
5.7.1 General ... 178 
5.7.2 Measuring devices and networks ... 178 
5.7.3 Equipment set-up, supply connections and earth connections ... 179 
5.7.4 Unearthed accessible parts ... 179 
5.7.5 Earthed accessible conductive parts ... 179 
5.7.6 Requirements when touch current exceeds ES2 limits ... 180 
5.7.7 Prospective touch voltage and touch current associated with external circuits ... 181 
5.7.8 Summation of touch currents from external circuits ... 183 
5.8 Backfeed safeguard in battery backed up supplies ... 185 
6 Electrically-caused fire ... 186 
6.1 General ... 186 
6.2 Classification of power sources (PS) and potential ignition sources (PIS) ... 186 
6.2.1 General ... 186 
6.2.2 Power source circuit classifications ... 186 
6.2.3 Classification of potential ignition sources ... 190 
6.3 Safeguards against fire under normal operating conditions and abnormal operating
conditions ... 192 
6.3.1 Requirements ... 192 
6.3.2 Compliance criteria ... 193 
6.4 Safeguards against fire under single fault conditions ... 193 
6.4.1 General ... 193 
6.4.2 Reduction of the likelihood of ignition under single fault conditions in PS1 circuits
... 193 
6.4.3 Reduction of the likelihood of ignition under single fault conditions in PS2 circuits
and PS3 circuits ... 194 
6.4.4 Control of fire spread in PS1 circuits ... 195 
6.4.5 Control of fire spread in PS2 circuits ... 196 
6.4.6 Control of fire spread in a PS3 circuit ... 197 
6.4.7 Separation of combustible materials from a PIS ... 198 
6.4.8 Fire enclosures and fire barriers ... 201 
6.4.9 Flammability of an insulating liquid ... 208 
6.5 Internal and external wiring ... 209 
6.5.1 General requirements ... 209 
6.5.2 Requirements for interconnection to building wiring ... 209 
6.5.3 Internal wiring for socket-outlets ... 210 
6.6 Safeguards against fire due to the connection of additional equipment ... 210 
7 Injury caused by hazardous substances ... 210 
7.1 General ... 210 
7.2 Reduction of exposure to hazardous substances ... 210 
7.3 Ozone exposure ... 211 
7.4 Use of personal safeguards or personal protective equipment (PPE) ... 211 
7.5 Use of instructional safeguards and instructions ... 211 
7.6 Batteries and their protection circuits ... 211 
8 Mechanically-caused injury ... 211 
8.1 General ... 211 
8.2 Mechanical energy source classifications ... 212 
8.2.1 General classification ... 212 
8.2.2 MS1 ... 214 
8.2.3 MS2 ... 214 
8.2.4 MS3 ... 214 
8.3 Safeguards against mechanical energy sources ... 214 
8.4 Safeguards against parts with sharp edges and corners ... 214 
8.4.1 Requirements ... 214 
8.4.2 Compliance criteria ... 215 
8.5 Safeguards against moving parts ... 215 
8.5.1 Requirements ... 215 
8.5.2 Instructional safeguard requirements ... 217 
8.5.3 Compliance criteria ... 217 
8.5.4 Special categories of equipment containing moving parts ... 217 
8.5.5 High pressure lamps ... 224 
8.6 Stability of equipment ... 225 
8.6.1 Requirements ... 225 
8.6.2 Static stability ... 227 
8.6.3 Relocation stability ... 228 
8.6.4 Glass slide test ... 229 
8.6.5 Horizontal force test and compliance criteria ... 229 
8.7 Equipment mounted to a wall, ceiling or other structure ... 230 
8.7.1 Requirements ... 230 
8.7.2 Test methods ... 230 
8.7.3 Compliance criteria ... 232 
8.8 Handle strength ... 232 
8.8.1 General ... 232 
8.8.2 Test method ... 232 
8.9 Wheels or casters attachment requirements ... 233 
8.9.1 General ... 233 
8.9.2 Test method ... 233 
8.10 Carts, stands, and similar carriers ... 233 
8.10.1 General ... 233 
8.10.2 Marking and instructions ... 234 
8.10.3 Cart, stand or carrier loading test and compliance criteria ... 235 
8.10.4 Cart, stand or carrier impact test ... 235 
8.10.5 Mechanical stability ... 236 
8.10.6 Thermoplastic temperature stability ... 236 
8.11 Mounting means for slide-rail mounted equipment ... 236 
8.11.1 General ... 236 
8.11.2 Requirements ... 237 
8.11.3 Mechanical strength test ... 238 
8.11.4 Compliance criteria ... 239 
8.12 Telescoping or rod antennas ... 239 
9 Thermal burn injury ... 239 
9.1 General ... 239 
9.2 Thermal energy source classifications ... 239 
9.2.1 TS1 ... 239 
9.2.2 TS2 ... 240 
9.2.3 TS3 ... 240 
9.3 Touch temperature limits ... 240 
9.3.1 General requirements ... 240 
9.3.2 Test method and compliance criteria ... 240 
9.4 Safeguards against thermal energy sources ... 242 
9.5 Requirements for safeguards ... 243 
9.5.1 Equipment safeguard ... 243 
9.5.2 Instructional safeguard ... 243 
9.6 Requirements for wireless power transmitters ... 244 
9.6.1 General ... 244 
9.6.2 Specification of the foreign objects ... 244 
9.6.3 Test method and compliance criteria ... 247 
10 Radiation ... 248 
10.1 General ... 248 
10.2 Radiation energy source classifications ... 248 
10.2.1 General classification ... 248 
10.2.2 RS1 ... 250 
10.2.3 RS2 ... 251 
10.2.4 RS3 ... 251 
10.3 Safeguards against laser radiation ... 251 
10.4 Safeguards against optical radiation from lamps and lamp systems (including LED types)
... 252 
10.4.1 General requirements ... 252 
10.4.2 Requirements for enclosures ... 253 
10.4.3 Instructional safeguard ... 253 
10.4.4 Compliance criteria ... 255 
10.5 Safeguards against X-radiation ... 256 
10.5.1 Requirements ... 256 
10.5.2 Compliance criteria ... 256 
10.5.3 Test method ... 256 
10.6 Safeguards against acoustic energy sources ... 257 
10.6.1 General ... 257 
10.6.2 Classification ... 258 
10.6.3 Requirements for dose-based systems ... 259 
10.6.4 Measurement methods ... 260 
10.6.5 Protection of persons ... 261 
10.6.6 Requirements for listening devices (headphones, earphones, etc.) ... 261 
Annex A (Informative) Examples of equipment within the scope of this document 263 
Annex B (Normative) Normal operating condition tests, abnormal operating condition
tests and single fault condition tests ... 264 
B.1 General ... 264 
B.1.1 Test applicability ... 264 
B.1.2 Type of test ... 264 
B.1.3 Test samples ... 264 
B.1.4 Compliance by inspection of relevant data ... 264 
B.1.5 Temperature measurement conditions ... 265 
B.2 Normal operating conditions ... 265 
B.2.1 General ... 265 
B.2.2 Supply frequency ... 266 
B.2.3 Supply voltage ... 266 
B.2.4 Normal operating voltages ... 266 
B.2.5 Input test ... 266 
B.2.6 Operating temperature measurement conditions ... 268 
B.2.7 Battery charging and discharging under normal operating conditions ... 269 
B.3 Simulated abnormal operating conditions ... 269 
B.3.1 General ... 269 
B.3.2 Covering of ventilation openings ... 270 
B.3.3 DC mains polarity test ... 270 
B.3.4 Setting of voltage selector ... 271 
B.3.5 Maximum load at output terminals ... 271 
B.3.6 Reverse battery polarity ... 271 
B.3.7 Audio amplifier abnormal operating conditions ... 271 
B.3.8 Compliance criteria during and after abnormal operating conditions ... 271 
B.4 Simulated single fault conditions ... 271 
B.4.1 General ... 271 
B.4.2 Temperature controlling device ... 272 
B.4.3 Motor tests ... 272 
B.4.4 Functional insulation ... 272 
B.4.5 Short-circuit and interruption of electrodes in tubes and semiconductors ... 273 
B.4.6 Short-circuit or disconnection of passive components ... 273 
B.4.7 Continuous operation of components ... 274 
B.4.8 Compliance criteria during and after single fault conditions ... 274 
B.4.9 Battery charging and discharging under single fault conditions ... 275 
Annex C (Normative) UV radiation ... 276 
C.1 Protection of materials in equipment from UV radiation ... 276 
C.1.1 General ... 276 
C.1.2 Requirements ... 276 
C.1.3 Test method and compliance criteria ... 276 
C.2 UV light conditioning test ... 277 
C.2.1 Test apparatus ... 277 
C.2.2 Mounting of test samples ... 277 
C.2.3 Carbon-arc light-exposure test ... 277 
C.2.4 Xenon-arc light-exposure test ... 277 
Annex D (Normative) Test generators ... 278 
D.1 Impulse test generators ... 278 
D.2 Antenna interface test generator ... 279 
D.3 Electronic pulse generator ... 279 
Annex E (Normative) Test conditions for equipment containing audio amplifiers .. 281 
E.1 Electrical energy source classification for audio signals ... 281 
E.2 Audio amplifier normal operating conditions ... 281 
E.3 Audio amplifier abnormal operating conditions ... 283 
Annex F (Normative) Equipment markings, instructions, and instructional safeguards
... 284 
F.1 General ... 284 
F.2 Letter symbols and graphical symbols ... 284 
F.2.1 Letter symbols ... 284 
F.2.2 Graphical symbols ... 284 
F.2.3 Compliance criteria ... 285 
F.3 Equipment markings ... 285 
F.3.1 Equipment marking locations ... 285 
F.3.2 Equipment identification markings ... 286 
F.3.3 Equipment rating markings ... 286 
F.3.4 Voltage setting device ... 289 
F.3.5 Markings on terminals and operating devices ... 289 
F.3.6 Equipment markings related to equipment classification ... 291 
F.3.7 Equipment IP rating marking ... 292 
F.3.8 External power supply output marking ... 292 
F.3.9 Durability, legibility and permanence of markings ... 292 
F.3.10 Test for the permanence of markings ... 293 
F.4 Instructions... 293 
F.5 Instructional safeguards ... 295 
Annex G (Normative) Components ... 298 
G.1 Switches ... 298 
G.1.1 General ... 298 
G.1.2 Requirements ... 298 
G.1.3 Test method and compliance criteria ... 299 
G.2 Relays... 299 
G.2.1 Requirements ... 299 
G.2.2 Overload test ... 301 
G.2.3 Relay controlling connectors supplying power to other equipment ... 301 
G.2.4 Test method and compliance criteria ... 301 
G.3 Protective devices ... 301 
G.3.1 Thermal cut-offs ... 301 
G.3.2 Thermal links ... 303 
G.3.3 PTC thermistors ... 304 
G.3.4 Overcurrent protective devices ... 305 
G.3.5 Safeguard components not mentioned in G.3.1 to G.3.4 ... 305 
G.4 Connectors ... 305 
G.4.1 Clearance and creepage distance requirements ... 305 
G.4.2 Mains connectors ... 306 
G.4.3 Connectors other than mains connectors ... 306 
G.5 Wound components ... 307 
G.5.1 Wire insulation in wound components ... 307 
G.5.2 Endurance test ... 307 
G.5.3 Transformers ... 309 
G.5.4 Motors ... 320 
G.6 Wire insulation ... 326 
G.6.1 General ... 326 
G.6.2 Enamelled winding wire insulation ... 327 
G.7 Mains supply cords ... 327 
G.7.1 General ... 327 
G.7.2 Cross sectional area ... 329 
G.7.3 Cord anchorages and strain relief for non-detachable power supply cords ... 330 
G.7.4 Cord entry ... 332 
G.7.5 Non-detachable cord bend protection ... 332 
G.7.6 Supply wiring space ... 333 
G.8 Varistors ... 335 
G.8.1 General ... 335 
G.8.2 Safeguards against fire ... 336 
G.9 IC current limiters ... 338 
G.9.1 Requirements ... 338 
G.9.2 Test program ... 339 
G.9.3 Compliance criteria ... 340 
G.10 Resistors ... 340 
G.10.1 General ... 340 
G.10.2 Conditioning ... 340 
G.10.3 Resistor test ... 341 
G.10.4 Voltage surge test ... 341 
G.10.5 Impulse test ... 341 
G.10.6 Overload test ... 341 
G.11 Capacitors and RC units ... 342 
G.11.1 General ... 342 
G.11.2 Conditioning of capacitors and RC units ... 342 
G.11.3 Rules for selecting capacitors ... 342 
G.12 Optocouplers ... 343 
G.13 Printed boards ... 343 
G.13.1 General ... 343 
G.13.2 Uncoated printed boards ... 344 
G.13.3 Coated printed boards ... 344 
G.13.4 Insulation between conductors on the same inner surface of printed board ... 346 
G.13.5 Insulation between conductors on different surfaces of printed board ... 346 
G.13.6 Tests on coated printed boards ... 346 
G.14 Coatings on component terminals ... 349 
G.14.1 Requirements ... 349 
G.14.2 Test method and compliance criteria ... 349 
G.15 Pressurized liquid filled components ... 349 
G.15.1 Requirements ... 349 
G.15.2 Test methods and compliance criteria ... 350 
G.15.3 Compliance criteria ... 351 
G.16 IC that includes a capacitor discharge function (ICX) ... 351 
G.16.1 Requirements ... 351 
G.16.2 Tests ... 352 
G.16.3 Compliance criteria ... 352 
Annex H (Normative) Criteria for telephone ringing signals ... 353 
H.1 General ... 353 
H.2 Method A ... 353 
H.3 Method B ... 356 
H.3.1 Ringing signal ... 356 
H.3.2 Tripping device and monitoring voltage ... 356 
Annex I (Informative) Overvoltage categories (see GB/T 16895.10-2010) ... 359 
Annex J (Normative) Insulated winding wires for use without interleaved insulation
... 360 
J.1 General ... 360 
J.2 Type tests ... 360 
J.2.1 General ... 360 
J.2.2 Electric strength ... 360 
J.2.3 Flexibility and adherence ... 361 
J.2.4 Heat shock ... 362 
J.2.5 Retention of electric strength after bending ... 363 
J.3 Testing during manufacturing ... 363 
J.3.1 General ... 363 
J.3.2 Spark test ... 363 
J.3.3 Sampling test ... 363 
Annex K (Normative) Safety interlocks ... 364 
K.1 General ... 364 
K.1.1 General requirements ... 364 
K.1.2 Test method and compliance criteria ... 365 
K.2 Components of the safety interlock safeguard mechanism ... 365 
K.3 Inadvertent change of operating mode ... 365 
K.4 Interlock safeguard override ... 365 
K.5 Fail-safe ... 365 
K.5.1 Requirement ... 365 
K.5.2 Test method and compliance criteria ... 366 
K.6 Mechanically operated safety interlocks ... 366 
K.6.1 Endurance requirement ... 366 
K.6.2 Test method and compliance criteria ... 366 
K.7 Interlock circuit isolation ... 367 
K.7.1 Separation distances for contact gaps and interlock circuit elements ... 367 
K.7.2 Overload test ... 368 
K.7.3 Endurance test ... 368 
K.7.4 Electric strength test ... 368 
Annex L (Normative) Disconnect devices ... 369 
L.1 General requirements ... 369 
L.2 Permanently connected equipment ... 369 
L.3 Parts that remain energized ... 370 
L.4 Single-phase equipment ... 370 
L.5 Three-phase equipment ... 370 
L.6 Switches as disconnect devices ... 370 
L.7 Plugs as disconnect devices ... 370 
L.8 Multiple power sources ... 371 
L.9 Compliance criteria ... 371 
Annex M (Normative) Equipment containing batteries and their protection circuits 372 
M.1 General requirements ... 372 
M.2 Safety of batteries and their cells ... 372 
M.2.1 Requirements ... 372 
M.2.2 Compliance criteria ... 372 
M.3 Protection circuits for batteries provided within the equipment ... 372 
M.3.1 Requirements ... 372 
M.3.2 Test method ... 373 
M.3.3 Compliance criteria ... 374 
M.4 Additional safeguards for equipment containing a portable secondary lithium battery . 375 
M.4.1 General ... 375 
M.4.2 Charging safeguards ... 375 
M.4.3 Fire enclosure ... 376 
M.4.4 Drop test of equipment containing a secondary lithium battery ... 377 
M.5 Risk of burn due to short-circuit during carrying ... 378 
M.5.1 Requirements ... 378 
M.5.2 Test method and compliance criteria ... 378 
M.6 Safeguards against short-circuits ... 378 
M.6.1 General requirements ... 378 
M.6.2 Compliance criteria ... 379 
M.7 Risk of explosion from lead acid and NiCd batteries ... 379 
M.7.1 Ventilation preventing an explosive gas concentration ... 379 
M.7.2 Test method and compliance criteria ... 380 
M.7.3 Ventilation tests ... 384 
M.7.4 Marking requirement ... 385 
M.8 Protection against internal ignition from external spark sources of batteries with aqueous
electrolyte ... 386 
M.8.1 General ... 386 
M.8.2 Test method ... 386 
M.9 Preventing electrolyte spillage ... 389 
M.9.1 Protection from electrolyte spillage ... 389 
M.9.2 Tray for preventing electrolyte spillage ... 390 
M.10 Instructions to prevent reasonably foreseeable misuse ... 390 
Annex N (Normative) Table of electrochemical potentials ... 392 
Annex O (Normative) Measurement of creepage distances and clearances ... 393 
Annex P (Normative) Safeguards against conductive objects ... 402 
P.1 General ... 402 
P.2 Safeguards against entry or consequences of entry of a foreign object ... 402 
P.2.1 General ... 402 
P.2.2 Safeguards against entry of a foreign object ... 402 
P.2.3 Safeguards against the consequences of entry of a foreign object ... 403 
P.3 Safeguards against spillage of internal liquids ... 406 
P.3.1 General ... 406 
P.3.2 Determination of spillage consequences ... 406 
P.3.3 Spillage safeguards ... 406 
P.3.4 Compliance criteria ... 407 
P.4 Metallized coatings and adhesives securing parts ... 408 
P.4.1 General ... 408 
P.4.2 Tests ... 408 
Annex Q (Normative) Circuits intended for interconnection with building wiring ... 411 
Q.1 Limited power source ... 411 
Q.1.1 General requirements ... 411 
Q.1.2 Test method and compliance criteria ... 411 
Q.2 Test for external circuits - paired conductor cable ... 412 
Annex R (Normative) Limited short-circuit test ... 414 
R.1 General ... 414 
R.2 Test setup ... 414 
R.3 Test method ... 414 
R.4 Compliance criteria ... 415 
Annex S (Normative) Tests for resistance to heat and fire ... 416 
S.1 Flammability test for fire enclosure and fire barrier materials of equipment where the steady
state power does not exceed 4000 W ... 416 
S.2 Flammability test for fire enclosure and fire barrier integrity ... 417 
S.3 Flammability tests for the bottom of a fire enclosure ... 419 
S.3.1 Mounting of samples ... 419 
S.3.2 Test method and compliance criteria ... 419 
S.4 Flammability classification of materials ... 420 
S.5 Flammability test for fire enclosure materials of equipment with a steady state power
exceeding 4000 W ... 421 
Annex T (Normative) Mechanical strength tests ... 423 
T.1 General ... 423 
T.2 Steady force test, 10 N ... 423 
T.3 Steady force test, 30 N ... 423 
T.4 Steady force test, 100 N ... 423 
T.5 Steady force test, 250 N ... 423 
T.6 Enclosure impact test ... 423 
T.7 Drop test ... 424 
T.8 Stress relief test ... 425 
T.9 Glass impact test ... 425 
T.10 Glass fragmentation test ... 426 
T.11 Test for telescoping or rod antennas ... 426 
Annex U (Normative) Mechanical strength of CRTs and protection against the effects
of implosion ... 428 
U.1 General ... 428 
U.2 Test method and compliance criteria for non-intrinsically protected CRTs ... 429 
U.3 Protective screen ... 429 
Annex V (Normative) Determination of accessible parts ... 430 
V.1 Accessible parts of equipment ... 430 
V.1.1 General ... 430 
V.1.2 Test method 1 - Surfaces and openings tested with jointed test probes ... 430 
V.1.3 Test method 2 - Openings tested with straight unjointed test probes ... 431 
V.1.4 Test method 3 - Plugs, jacks, connectors ... 434 
V.1.5 Test method 4 - Slot openings ... 434 
V.1.6 Test method 5 - Terminals intended to be used by an ordinary person ... 435 
V.2 Accessible part criterion ... 436 
Annex W (Informative) Comparison of terms introduced in this document ... 437 
W.1 General ... 437 
W.2 Comparison of terms ... 437 
Annex X (Normative) Alternative method for determining clearances for insulation in
circuits connected to an AC mains not exceeding 420 V peak (300 V RMS) ... 453 
Annex Y (Normative) Construction requirements for outdoor enclosures ... 455 
Y.1 General ... 455 
Y.2 Resistance to UV radiation ... 455 
Y.3 Resistance to corrosion ... 456 
Y.3.1 General ... 456 
Y.3.2 Test apparatus ... 456 
Y.3.3 Water-saturated sulphur dioxide atmosphere ... 456 
Y.3.4 Test procedure ... 457 
Y.3.5 Compliance criteria ... 457 
Y.4 Gaskets ... 458 
Y.4.1 General ... 458 
Y.4.2 Gasket tests ... 458 
Y.4.3 Tensile strength and elongation tests ... 458 
Y.4.4 Compression test ... 458 
Y.4.5 Oil resistance ... 460 
Y.4.6 Securing means... 461 
Y.5 Protection of equipment within an outdoor enclosure ... 461 
Y.5.1 General ... 461 
Y.5.2 Protection from moisture ... 462 
Y.5.3 Water spray test ... 463 
Y.5.4 Protection from plants and vermin ... 465 
Y.5.5 Protection from excessive dust ... 466 
Y.6 Mechanical strength of enclosures ... 467 
Y.6.1 General ... 467 
Y.6.2 Impact test ... 467 
Annex Z (Normative) Description of newly-added safety warning labels in this
document ... 468 
Z.1 Safety warning labels about altitude ... 468 
Z.2 Safety warning labels about climatic conditions ... 468 
Annex AA (Informative) Comparison of Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, Zhuang and
Uyghur languages for safety-related description examples in this document ... 469 
Annex BB (Informative) Comparison of normative references and bibliography in IEC
62368-1:2018 and this document ... 483 
Bibliography ... 493 
Foreword
This document is drafted in accordance with GB/T 1.1-2020 "Directives for
standardization - Part 1: Rules for the structure and drafting of standardizing
documents".
This document is Part 1 of GB 4943. GB 4943 has issued the following part:
- Part 1: Safety requirements.
This document replaces GB 4943.1-2011 "Information technology equipment - Safety
- Part 1: General requirements" and GB 8898-2011 "Audio, video and similar electronic
apparatus - Safety requirements". Compared with GB 4943.1-2011 and GB 8898-2011,
in addition to structural adjustment and editorial changes, the main technical changes
are as follows:
- Add energy source classification tests; specify different limits and safeguard
requirements (see 5.2, 6.2, 8.2, 9.2, 10.2);
- Delete the definition of TNV circuit (see 1.2.8.11 of GB 4943.1-2011 and Annex
B of GB 8898-2011);
- Add the definition and requirements of insulating liquid (see 3.3.5.4, 4.4.4, 5.4.12,
6.4.9);
- Add and change the requirements for equipment containing liquid (see 4.1.8, B.3.1,
F.4, G.15, and P.3; 4.3.10, 4.3.11, and 4.3.12 of GB 4943.1-2011);
- Add requirements for equipment containing coin / button cell batteries (see 4.8);
- Change the test requirements or limits of some safety requirements (see Table 4,
5.4.2, 5.4.9, 5.5.2.2, and Table 38, etc.; 5.1, 2.10.3, 5.2, 2.1.1.7, and Table 4C, etc.
of GB 4943.1-2011; 9.1.1.1, 13.3, 10.3, 9.1.6, and Table 3, etc. of GB 8898-2011);
- Add requirements for backfeed (see 5.8);
- Add test requirements for power source circuits (see 6.2);
- Change the requirements and test methods for combustible materials (see 6.4 and
Annex S; 4.7 and Annex A of GB 4943.1-2011; Clause 20 and Annex G of GB
8898-2011);
- Change the requirements for enclosure openings (see 6.4.8.3 and P.2; 4.6 of GB
4943.1-2011; 9.1.3 of GB 8898-2011);
- Add requirements for large equipment (see 8.5.4);
- Change the test method for equipment mounted to a wall or ceiling (see 8.7; 4.2.10
of GB 4943.1-2011; 19.6 of GB 8898-2011);
- Add requirements for slide-rail mounted equipment (see 8.11);
- Add requirements for wireless transmitters (see 9.6);
- Change the requirements for optical radiation (see Table 39, 10.3, and 10.4;
4.3.13.5 of GB 4943.1-2011; 6.2 of GB 8898-2011);
- Add requirements for acoustic radiation (see 10.6);
- Add requirements for the input signal of the display (see B.2.5);
- Add new identification symbols for Class II equipment with a functional earthing
connection (see F.3.6.2);
- Add requirements for transformers using fully insulated winding wire (see G.5.3.4);
- Add requirements for liquid filled components (see G.15);
- Add requirements for integrated circuits and integrated circuits with X-capacitor
function (see G.16);
- Add and change the requirements for equipment containing batteries and their
protection circuits (see Annex M);
- Add the limited short-circuit test (see Annex R);
- Delete the spring impact hammer test (see 12.1.3 of GB 8898-2011);
- Add the children test probe and wedge probe (see Annex V);
- Add requirements for outdoor equipment (see Annex Y).
This document modifies and adopts IEC 62368-1:2018 "Audio/video, information and
communication technology equipment - Part 1: Safety requirements".
Compared with IEC 62368-1:2018, this document has technical differences, which are
marked with a vertical single line (|) in the outer margin of the clauses involved. These
technical differences and their reasons are as follows:
a) Scope of application
IEC 62368-1:2018 applies to equipment intended to be used at an altitude of 2000
m and below. Due to the particularity of China's geographical conditions and the
distribution characteristics of ethnic minority populations, after the revision of
some clauses of IEC 62368-1:2018, this document is applicable to equipment
used in areas with an altitude of 5000 m and below. For equipment intended to be
used only at an altitude of 200......