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标准编号: GB/T 31485-2015 (GB/T31485-2015)
中文名称: 电动汽车用动力蓄电池安全要求及试验方法
英文名称: Safety requirements and test methods for traction battery of electric vehicle
行业: 国家标准 (推荐)
中标分类: T47
国际标准分类: 43.120
字数估计: 13,171
发布日期: 2015-05-15
实施日期: 2015-05-15
引用标准: GB/T 2900.41; GB/T 19596
起草单位: 中国汽车技术研究中心
归口单位: 全国汽车标准化技术委员会
标准依据: 国家标准公告2015年第15号
提出机构: 中华人民共和国工业和信息化部
发布机构: 中华人民共和国国家质量监督检验检疫总局、中国国家标准化管理委员会
范围: 本标准规定了电动汽车用动力蓄电池(以下简称蓄电池)的安全要求、试验方法和检验规则。本标准适用于装载在电动汽车上的锂离子蓄电池和金属氢化物镍蓄电池单体和模块, 其他类型蓄电池参照执行。

GB/T 31485-2015: 电动汽车用动力蓄电池安全要求及试验方法
GB/T 31485-2015 英文名称: Safety requirements and test methods for traction battery of electric vehicle
1 范围
本标准规定了电动汽车用动力蓄电池(以下简称蓄电池)的安全要求、试验方法和检验规则。
本标准适用于装载在电动汽车上的锂离子蓄电池和金属氢化物镍蓄电池单体和模块,其他类型蓄
电池参照执行。
2 规范性引用文件
下列文件对于本文件的应用是必不可少的。凡是注日期的引用文件,仅注日期的版本适用于本文
件。凡是不注日期的引用文件,其最新版本(包括所有的修改单)适用于本文件。
GB/T 2900.41 电工术语 原电池和蓄电池
GB/T 19596 电动汽车术语
3 术语和定义
GB/T 2900.41、GB/T 19596中界定的以及下列术语和定义适用于本文件。
3.1
单体蓄电池
直接将化学能转化为电能的基本单元装置,包括电极、隔膜、电解质、外壳和端子,并被设计成可
充电。
3.2
蓄电池模块
将一个以上单体蓄电池按照串联、并联或串并联方式组合,且只有一对正负极输出端子,并作为电
源使用的组合体。
3.3
爆炸
蓄电池外壳猛烈破裂,伴随剧烈响声,且有主要成分(固体物质)抛射出来。
3.4
起火
蓄电池任何部位发生持续燃烧(持续时间长于1s)。火花及拉弧不属于燃烧。
3.5
漏液
蓄电池内部液体泄漏到电池壳体外部。
3.6
壳体
将蓄电池内部部件封装并为其提供防止与外部直接接触的保护部件。
4 符号
下列符号适用于本文件。
C1:1小时率额定容量(Ah)。
I1:1小时率放电电流,其数值等于C1(A)。
5 要求
5.1 单体蓄电池
5.1.1 单体蓄电池按6.2.2进行过放电试验时,应不爆炸、不起火、不漏液。
5.1.2 单体蓄电池按6.2.3进行过充电试验时,应不爆炸、不起火。
5.1.3 单体蓄电池按6.2.4进行短路试验时,应不爆炸、不起火。
5.1.4 单体蓄电池按6.2.5进行跌落试验时:
a) 对于锂离子蓄电池,应不爆炸、不起火、不漏液;
b) 对于金属氢化物镍蓄电池,应不爆炸、不起火。
5.1.5 单体蓄电池按6.2.6进行加热试验时,应不爆炸、不起火。
5.1.6 单体蓄电池按6.2.7进行挤压试验时,应不爆炸、不起火。
5.1.7 单体蓄电池按6.2.8进行针刺试验时,应不爆炸、不起火。
5.1.8 单体蓄电池按6.2.9进行海水浸泡试验时,应不爆炸、不起火。
5.1.9 单体蓄电池按6.2.10进行温度循环试验时,应不爆炸、不起火、不漏液。
5.1.10 单体蓄电池按6.2.11进行低气压试验时,应不爆炸、不起火、不漏液。
5.2 蓄电池模块
5.2.1 蓄电池模块按6.3.2进行过放电试验时,应不爆炸、不起火、不漏液。
5.2.2 蓄电池模块按6.3.3进行过充电试验时,应不爆炸、不起火。
5.2.3 蓄电池模块按6.3.4进行短路试验时,应不爆炸、不起火。
5.2.4 蓄电池模块按6.3.5进行跌落试验时:
a) 对于锂离子蓄电池,应不爆炸、不起火、不漏液;
b) 对于金属氢化物镍蓄电池,应不爆炸、不起火。
5.2.5 蓄电池模块按6.3.6进行加热试验时,应不爆炸、不起火。
5.2.6 蓄电池模块按6.3.7进行挤压试验时,应不爆炸、不起火。
5.2.7 蓄电池模块按6.3.8进行针刺试验时,应不爆炸、不起火。
5.2.8 蓄电池模块按6.3.9进行海水浸泡试验时,应不爆炸、不起火。
5.2.9 蓄电池模块按6.3.10进行温度循环试验时,应不爆炸、不起火、不漏液。
5.2.10 蓄电池模块按6.3.11进行低气压试验时,应不爆炸、不起火、不漏液。
6 试验方法
6.1 试验条件
6.1.1 环境条件
除另有规定外,试验应在温度为25℃±5℃,相对湿度为15%~90%,大气压力为86kPa~
106kPa的环境中进行。本标准所提到的室温,是指25℃±2℃。
6.1.2 测量仪器、仪表准确度
测量仪器、仪表准确度应满足以下要求:
---电压测量装置:不低于0.5级;
---电流测量装置:不低于0.5级;
---温度测量装置:±0.5℃;
---时间测量装置:±0.1%;
---尺寸测量装置:±0.1%;
---质量测量装置:±0.1%。
6.1.3 单体蓄电池充电
室温下,单体蓄电池先以1I1(A)电流放电至企业技术条件中规定的放电终止电压,搁置1h(或企
业提供的不大于1h的搁置时间),然后按企业提供的充电方法进行充电。
a) 对于锂离子蓄电池,以1I1(A)电流恒流充电至企业技术条件中规定的充电终止电压时转恒压
充电,至充电电流降至0.05I1(A)时停止充电,充电后搁置1h(或企业提供的不高于1h的搁
置时间);
b) 对于金属氢化物镍蓄电池,以1I1(A)电流恒流充电1h,然后再以0.2I1 充电1h,充电后静置
1h(或企业提供的不大于1h的静置时间)。
6.1.4 蓄电池模块充电
室温下,蓄电池模块先以1I1(A)电流放电至任一单体蓄电池电压达到放电终止电压。搁置1h(或
企业提供的不高于1h的搁置时间),然后按企业提供的充电方法进行充电。
若企业未提供充电方法,则依据以下方法充电:
充电,至充电电流降至0.05I1(A)时停止充电,若充电过程中有单体蓄电池电压超过充电终止
电压0.1V时则停止充电。充电后搁置1h(或企业提供的不高于1h的搁置时间)。
b) 对于金属氢化物镍蓄电池,以1I1(A)电流恒流充电1h,然后再以0.2I1 充电1h,充电后静置
1h(或企业提供的不高于1h的静置时间)。
6.2 单体蓄电池安全性试验
6.2.1 一般要求
所有安全试验均在有充分安全保护的环境条件下进行。如果测试对象有附加主动保护线路或装
置,应除去。
6.2.2 过放电
a) 单体蓄电池按6.1.3方法充电;
b) 单体蓄电池以1I1(A)电流放电90min;
c) 观察1h。
6.2.3 过充电
过充电试验按照如下步骤进行:
a) 单体蓄电池按6.1.3方法充电;
b) 以1I1(A)电流恒流充电至电压达到企业技术条件中规定的充电终止电压的1.5倍或充电时
间达1h后停止充电;
c) 观察1h。
短路试验按照如下步骤进行:
a) 单体蓄电池按6.1.3方法充电;
b) 将单体蓄电池正、负极经外部短路10min,外部线路电阻应小于5mΩ;
c) 观察1h。
6.2.5 跌落
跌落试验按照如下步骤进行:
a) 单体蓄电池按6.1.3方法充电;
b) 单体蓄电池正负端子向下从1.5m高度处自由跌落到水泥地面上;
c) 观察1h。
加热试验按照如下步骤进行:
a) 单体蓄电池按6.1.3方法充电。
b) 将单体蓄电池放入温度箱:
---对于锂离子蓄电池,温度箱按照5℃/min的速率由室温升至130℃±2℃,并保持此温
度30min后停止加热;
---对于金属氢化物镍蓄电池,温度箱按照5℃/min的速率由室温升至85℃±2℃,并保持
此温度2h后停止加热。
c) 观察1h。
6.2.7 挤压
a) 单体蓄电池按6.1.3方法充电。
b) 按下列条件进行试验:
---挤压方向:垂直于蓄电池极板方向施压(参考图1所示);
---挤压板形式:半径75mm的半圆柱体,半圆柱体的长度(L)大于被挤压电池的尺寸;
---挤压速度:(5±1)mm/s;
---挤压程度:电压达到0V或变形量达到30%或挤压力达到200kN后停止挤压。
c) 观察1h。
图1 单体挤压板和挤压示意图
6.2.8 针刺
a) 单体蓄电池按6.1.3方法充电;
b) 用ϕ5mm~ϕ8mm的耐高温钢针(针尖的圆锥角度为45°~60°,针的表面光洁、无锈蚀、氧化
层及油污),以(25±5)mm/s的速度,从垂直于蓄电池极板的方向贯穿,贯穿位置宜靠近所刺
面的几何中心,钢针停留在蓄电池中;
c) 观察1h。
6.2.9 海水浸泡
海水浸泡试验按照如下步骤进行:
a) 单体蓄电池按6.1.3方法充电;
b) 将单体蓄电池浸入3.5% NaCl溶液(质量分数,模拟常温下的海水成分)中2h;
6.2.10 温度循环
温度循环试验按照如下步骤进行:
a) 单体蓄电池按6.1.3方法充电;
b) 单体蓄电池放入温度箱中,温度箱温度按照表1和图2进行调节,循环次数5次;
c) 观察1h。
​​​​


GB/T 31485-2015
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.120
T 47
Safety requirements and test methods for
traction battery of electric vehicle
ISSUED ON. MAY 15, 2015
IMPLEMENTED ON. MAY 15, 2015
Issued by.
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection
and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative references ... 4 
3 Terms and definitions ... 4 
4 Symbol ... 5 
5 Requirements ... 5 
6 Test methods ... 7 
7 Inspection rules ... 16 
Foreword
This Standard is drafted based on the provisions provided in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Standard was proposed by Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the
People’s Republic of China.
This Standard shall be under the jurisdiction of National Technical Committee of Auto
Standardization (SAC/TC 114).
Drafting organizations of this Standard. China Automotive Technology & Research Center,
Beijing University of Technology, China Electronics Technology Group Corporation 18th
Research Institute, China North Vehicle Research Institute, Shenzhen BYD Auto Co., Ltd.,
Tianjin Lishen Battery Co., Ltd., Shanghai Automotive Group Co., Ltd. Technology Center,
China First Automobile Co., Ltd., Chongqing Changan New Energy Automobile Co., Ltd.,
Dongfeng Motor Group Company Limited Technology Center, Beiqi Foton Motor Co., Ltd.,
Dongfeng Motor Co., Ltd. Dongfeng Nissan Passenger Vehicle Company, Ningde Shidai
New Energy Technology Co., Ltd., Hubei Camel Storage Battery Research Institute Co.,
Ltd., CITIC UNITA Guli Power Technology Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Gushen Energy Technology
Co., Ltd., Harbin Guangyu Power Co., Ltd., Huizhou City Yinen Electronics Co., Ltd., Hefei
Guoxuan High-tech Power Energy Co., Ltd., Haite Electronics Group Co., Ltd. AND
Shanghai Kanai Energy Co., Ltd.
Main drafters of this Standard. Wu Feng, Wang Fang, Xiao Chengwei, Meng Xiangfeng,
Cai Yi, Zhang Jianhua, Hu Daozhong, Fang Bin, Gao Hongbo, Wang Zhenpo, Zhu
Yanqing, Zhang Huiping, Wang Jin, Jian Wenfeng, Zhang Na, Wu Ningning, Fei Xiaojuan,
Zhang Zhe, Shun Jianping, Zhu Yanchun, Ruan Xushong, Xu Xinwu, Yu Hongtao, Guang
Chenshang, Yang Chongjiao, Yuan Chanrong, Xia Yang, Zhang Huiping, Wang Hailan, Li
Tao and Guo Yan.
Safety requirements and test methods for
traction battery of electric vehicle
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the safety requirements, test methods, and inspection rules for
traction battery of electric vehicle (hereinafter referred as “battery”).
This Standard is applicable to lithium-ion battery and metal hydride nickel battery which
are used in electric vehicle. For other traction batteries, this Standard is served as
reference.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for application of this document. For the dated
documents so quoted, only the dated versions apply to this document. For the undated
documents so quoted, the latest versions (including all modification sheets) apply to this
document.
GB/T 2900.41 Electrotechnical terminology - Primary and secondary cells and
batteries
GB/T 19596 Terminology of electric vehicles
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions AND those specified in GB/T 2900.41 and GB/T 19596
apply to this Standard.
3.1
secondary cell
A basic unit, designed to be chargeable, that can directly transform chemical energy into
3.2
battery module
A power supply combination of one or more of secondary cells which are connected in
series or in parallel or in series-parallel, with only one pair of positive and negative output
terminals.
3.3
explosion
Fierce explosion of battery case, with violent noise and projectiles of major composition
(solid substance).
fire
Combustion occurred in any part of battery (the last time is more than 1s). Spark and arc
do not belong to combustion.
3.5
leakage
The liquid inside battery is leaked out.
3.6
case
Protection parts which is used to seal inner parts of battery and prevent it from being in
4 Symbol
For the purpose of standard, the following symbols shall apply.
C1. Rated capacity per one hour rate (Ah).
I1. Discharge current per one hour rate, equal to C1 (A).
5 Requirements
5.1 Secondary cell
5.1.1 When over-discharge test in sub-clause 6.2.2 is carried out on secondary cell, there
shall have no explosion, fire or leakage.
5.1.2 When over-charge test in sub-clause 6.2.3 is carried out on secondary cell, there
5.1.4 When dropping test in sub-clause 6.2.5 is carried out on secondary cell.
6.2.4 Short-circuit test
Short-circuit test shall be carried out according to the following procedures.
a) Charge secondary cell according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.3;
b) Short-circuit the positive and negative poles of the secondary cell externally for
10min and the external circuit resistance shall be less than 5mΩ;
c) Observe it for 1h.
6.2.5 Dropping test
Dropping test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
b) Drop the secondary cell with positive and negative terminals downward from 1.5m
height to cement floor;
c) Observe it for 1h.
6.2.6 Heating test
Heating test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge secondary cell according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.3.
b) Place secondary cell in temperature chamber.
-- For lithium battery, increase the temperature at 5°C/min rate until it reaches
130°C±2°C; maintain it for 30min; then stop heating.
reaches 85°C±2°C; maintain it for 2h; then stop heating.
c) Observe it for 1h.
6.2.7 Crushing test
Crushing test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge secondary cell according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.3.
b) Carry out test according to the following conditions.
— Crushing direction. apply pressure along the direction perpendicular to battery pole
plate (as shown in Figure 1)
— Crushing plate form. semi-cylinder with 75mm radius and length (L) greater than the
-- The total voltage shall not be lower than 5 times of secondary cell voltage;
-- The rated capacity shall not be lower than 20Ah or be equal to rated capacity of
battery used for full-vehicle.
Note. Battery module to be tested can be made up of in-parallel and in-serial actual
modules.
All test items shall be carried out with sufficient safety protection measures. If the test
objective has additional active protection circuit or apparatus, it shall be removed.
6.3.2 Over-discharging test
Over-discharging test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
b) Discharge battery module at 1I1(A) for 90 min;
c) Observe it for 1h.
6.3.3 Over-charging test
Over-charging test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge battery module according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.4;
b) Charge at constant current of 1I1(A) and terminate when the secondary cell voltage
reaches 1.5 times of charge termination voltage specified by manufacturer or the
charge duration reaches 1h;
c) Observe it for 1h.
Short-circuit test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge battery module according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.4;
b) Short-circuit positive and negative poles of the battery module externally for 10min
and the external circuit resistance shall be less than 5mΩ;
c) Observe it for 1h.
6.3.5 Dropping test
Dropping test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge battery module according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.4;
b) Drop the secondary cell with positive and negative terminals downward from 1.2m
c) Observe it for 1h.
6.3.6 Heating test
Heating test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge battery module according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.4;
b) Place battery module in temperature chamber.
— For lithium battery, increase the temperature at 5°C/min rate until it reaches
130°C±2°C and maintain it for 30min. Then stop heating.
— For nickel-metal hydride battery, increase the temperature at 5°C/min rate until it
reaches 85°C±2°C and maintain it for 2h. Then stop heating.
6.3.7 Crushing test
Crushing test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge battery module according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.4;
b) Carry out test according to the following conditions.
— Crushing plate form. semi-cylinder with 75mm radius and its length shall be
gr...
   
 
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