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GB/T 31498-2021英文版

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GB/T 31498-2021 英文版 340 购买全文 现货, 9秒内下载 电动汽车碰撞后安全要求 GBT 31498-2021

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标准编号: GB/T 31498-2021 (GB/T31498-2021)
中文名称: 电动汽车碰撞后安全要求
英文名称: Post crash safety requirement for electric vehicle
行业: 国家标准 (推荐)
中标分类: T09
国际标准分类: 43.020
字数估计: 10,120
发布日期: 2021-08-20
实施日期: 2022-03-01
旧标准 (被替代): GB/T 31498-2015
起草单位: 中国汽车技术研究中心有限公司、比亚迪汽车工业有限公司、重庆长安汽车股份有限公司、一汽丰田技术开发有限公司、上海蔚来汽车有限公司、一汽-大众汽车有限公司、沃尔沃汽车(亚太)投资控股有限公司、捷豹路虎(中国)投资有限公司、东风汽车有限公司东风日产乘用车公司、观致汽车有限公司
归口单位: 全国汽车标准化技术委员会(SAC/TC 114)
提出机构: 中华人民共和国工业和信息化部
发布机构: 国家市场监督管理总局、国家标准化管理委员会

GB/T 31498-2021: 电动汽车碰撞后安全要求
GB/T 31498-2021 英文名称: Post crash safety requirement for electric vehicle
1 范围
本文件规定了带有B级电压电路的纯电动汽车、混合动力电动汽车正面碰撞、侧面碰撞、后面碰撞后的特殊安全要求和试验方法。
本文件适用于 M1 类及最大设计总质量不大于2500kg的N1 类汽车以及多用途货车中带有B级
电压电路的纯电动汽车、混合动力汽车的正面碰撞。
本文件适用于 M1、N1 类汽车中带有B级电压电路的纯电动汽车、混合动力汽车的侧面碰撞和后面碰撞。
本文件不适用于燃料电池电动汽车。
2 规范性引用文件
下列文件中的内容通过文中的规范性引用而构成本文件必不可少的条款。其中,注日期的引用文
件,仅该日期对应的版本适用于本文件;不注日期的引用文件,其最新版本(包括所有的修改单)适用于本文件。
GB/T 4208 外壳防护等级(IP代码)
GB 11551 汽车正面碰撞的乘员保护
GB 18384-2020 电动汽车安全要求
GB/T 18385-2005 电动汽车 动力性能 试验方法
GB/T 19596 电动汽车术语
GB 20071 汽车侧面碰撞的乘员保护
GB 20072 乘用车后碰撞燃油系统安全要求
3 术语和定义
GB/T 19596界定的以及下列术语和定义适用于本文件。
3.1
工作电压
根据制造商说明,在任何正常工作状态下,电力系统可能发生的交流电压的有效值(rms)或直流电
压的最大值(不考虑暂态峰值)。
3.2
乘员舱
由顶盖、地板、侧围、车门、玻璃窗和前围、后围或后座椅靠背支撑板以及防止乘员接触带电部件的电气保护遮栏、外壳围成的容纳乘员的空间。
3.3
直接接触
人或动物与带电部分的接触。
3.4
间接接触
人或动物与基本绝缘失效情况下变为带电的外露可导电部分的接触。
3.5
外露可导电部分
注:本概念是针对特定的电路而言,一个电路中的带电部分也许是另一个电路中的外露导体,例如:乘用车的车身可能是辅助电路中的带电部分,但对于动力电路来说它是外露导体。
3.6
带电部分
正常使用时被通电的导体或导电部分。
3.7
电平台
一组电气相连的可导电部件,其电位作为基准电位。
3.8
起火 fire
能持续发生火焰的现象。
注:瞬间的火花或电弧不属于起火。
3.9
爆炸
由于能量释放产生瞬间压力波并能对周边物体进行结构性或物理性破坏的现象。
3.10
电力系统负载
断开所有可充电储能系统(REESS),剩下的B级电压电路。
4 技术要求
4.1 基本要求
按5.1、5.2完成车辆准备、碰撞试验后,车辆包括REESS的动力用高压系统及与动力用高压系统
传导连接的高压部件应同时符合4.2~4.4要求。
4.2 防触电保护要求
4.2.1 总要求
每一条高压母线至少应满足4.2.2~4.2.5规定的四个条款中的一个。如果碰撞试验在车辆的
REESS与电力系统负载人为断开的情况下进行,则车辆的电力系统负载应满足4.2.4或4.2.5规定的两个条款中的一个;REESS和充电用高压母线应满足4.2.2~4.2.5规定的四个条款中的一个。
4.2.2 电压要求
按照附录A中A.1规定的测试方法,高压母线的电压Ub、U1和U2应不大于30V交流或60V直流。
4.2.3 电能要求
高压母线上的总电能TE应小于0.2J。TE可通过以下两种方式之一得到:一种是按照公式(A.1)所
规定的测试程序进行电能测量时,测得总电能TE。另一种是按照公式(A.2)通过高压母线的电压Ub和制造商规定的X-电容器的电容(Cx)来计算总能量TE。
储存在Y-电容器里的能量(TEy1,TEy2)也应少于0.2J。应通过高压母线和电平台的电压U1 和
U2 以及制造商所规定的Y-电容器的电容(Cy1,Cy2)根据公式(A.3)和公式(A.4)来计算该值。
4.2.4 物理防护
外,为了防止间接接触的触电伤害,用大于0.2A的电流进行测量,所有的外露可导电部分与电平台之间的电阻应低于0.1Ω。采用焊接连接时,则认为符合此要求。
4.2.5 绝缘电阻
4.2.5.1 总要求
车辆碰撞后,绝缘电阻应按照 GB 18384-2020中6.2.1的规定进行测量,并应符合4.2.5.2和
4.2.5.3规定的要求。
量(TEy1,TEy2)应少于0.2J。
4.2.5.2 动力系统由单独的直流和交流母线组成
如果交流高压母线和直流高压母线是互相隔离的,高压母线与电平台之间的绝缘电阻对于直流母
线来说,最小值应为100Ω/V;对于交流母线来说,最小值应为500Ω/V。
4.2.5.3 动力系统由连接的直流和交流母线组成
如果交流高压母线和直流高压母线是互相传导连接的,高压母线与电平台之间的绝缘电阻的最小
值应为500Ω/V。如果在碰撞之后,所有交流高压母线满足4.2.4规定的物理防护要求,或按照A.1规定的测试方法交流电压等于或小于30V,则高压母线与电平台之间的绝缘电阻的最小值应为100Ω/V。
从碰撞结束起至30min时间内,不应有电解液从REESS中溢出到乘员舱,不应有超过5.0L的电
解液从REESS中溢出,如果无法区分电解液与其他液体,则所有液体都应计入。
4.4 REESS要求
4.4.1 REESS移动要求
位于乘员舱里面的REESS应保持在安装位置,REESS部件应保持在其外壳内。位于乘员舱外面
的任何REESS部分不应进入乘员舱。
4.4.2 REESS特殊安全要求
碰撞结束后30min内,REESS不应爆炸、起火。
5 试验程序
5.1.1 纯电动汽车和可外接充电式混合动力汽车按GB/T 18385-2005中5.1进行完全充电。
5.1.2 不可外接充电混合动力电动汽车按车辆正常运行状态准备试验。
5.1.3 纯电动汽车和可外接充电式混合动力汽车碰撞试验应在车辆充电结束24h内进行。
5.1.4 进行正面碰撞试验的车辆其他状态按GB 11551的相关规定准备。
5.1.5 进行侧面碰撞试验的车辆其他状态按GB 20071的相关规定准备,对于驾驶员座椅R点大于
700mm的车辆可不放置假人,但应进行等效配重。
5.1.6 进行后面碰撞试验的车辆其他状态按GB 20072的相关规定准备。
5.2 碰撞试验
车辆正面碰撞试验形式和试验方法按照GB 11551的相关规定进行。
车辆后面碰撞试验形式和试验方法按照GB 20072的相关规定进行。
5.3 碰撞后电安全要求检查与试验
按附录A要求进行相关电安全检查与试验。
​​​​


GB/T 31498-2021
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.020
CCS T 09
Replacing GB/T 31498-2015
Post crash safety requirement for electric vehicle
ISSUED ON: AUGUST 20, 2021
IMPLEMENTED ON: MARCH 01, 2022
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 5 
2 Normative references ... 5 
3 Terms and definitions ... 6 
4 Technical requirements ... 7 
5 Test procedures ... 9 
Annex A (normative) Post crash electricity safety requirements and test
methods for electric vehicle... 11 
Post crash safety requirement for electric vehicle
1 Scope
This Standard specifies special safety requirements and test methods for pure
electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles with level-B voltage circuits after
frontal, side, and rear crashes.
This Standard is applicable to frontal crashes of M1 and N1 vehicles with a
maximum design total mass of not more than 2500kg, as well as pure electric
vehicles and hybrid vehicles with level-B voltage circuits in multi-purpose trucks.
This Standard is applicable to side crashes and rear crashes of pure electric
vehicles and hybrid vehicles with level-B voltage circuits in M1 and N1 vehicles.
This Standard does not apply to fuel cell electric vehicles.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of
this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated
references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.
GB/T 4208, Degrees of protection provided by enclosure (IP code)
GB 11551, The protection of the occupants in the event of a frontal crash for
motor vehicle
GB 18384-2020, Electric vehicles safety requirements
GB/T 18385-2005, Electric vehicles - Power performance - Test method
GB/T 19596, Terminology of electric vehicles
GB 20071, The protection of the occupants in the event of a lateral crash
GB 20072, The requirements of fuel system safety in the event of rear-end
crash for passenger car
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions defined in GB/T
19596 as well as the followings apply.
3.1 working voltage
according to the manufacturer's instructions, in any normal working state, the
effective value (rms) of the AC voltage or the maximum value of the DC voltage
that may occur in the power system (not considering transient peaks)
3.2 passenger compartment
the occupant's space enclosed by the roof, floor, side walls, doors, glass
windows and front wall, rear wall or back seat back support plate, as well as
electrical protection fences and shells that prevent occupants from contacting
live parts
[Source: GB/T 19596-2017, 3.1.2.2.5]
3.3 direct contact
human or animal contact with live parts
[Source: GB/T 19596-2017, 3.1.3.2.3]
3.4 indirect contact
human or animal contact with exposed conductive parts that become live in the
event of basic insulation failure
[Source: GB/T 19596-2017, 3.1.3.2.4]
3.5 exposed conductive part
the conductive part that can be touched by the joint test finger (IPXXB)
NOTE: This concept is for a specific circuit. The live part in one circuit may be an exposed
in the auxiliary circuit, but it is an exposed conductor in the power circuit.
[Source: GB/T 19596-2017, 3.1.2.3.4, with modification]
3.6 live part
conductors or conductive parts that are energized during normal use
[Source: GB/T 19596-2017, 3.1.2.3.4]
According to the test method specified in A.1 of Annex A, the voltage Ub, U1 and
U2 of the high-voltage bus shall not be greater than 30V AC or 60V DC.
4.2.3 Electricity requirements
The total electric energy TE on the high-voltage bus should be less than 0.2J.
energy TE when the electric energy is measured according to the test
procedure specified in formula (A.1). The other is to calculate the total energy
TE according to the formula (A.2) through the voltage Ub of the high-voltage
bus and the capacitance (Cx) of the X-capacitor specified by the manufacturer.
The energy stored in the Y-capacitor (TEy1, TEy2) shall also be less than 0.2J.
The value shall be calculated according to formula (A.3) and formula (A.4) by
the voltages U1 and U2 of the high-voltage bus and the electric platform and the
capacitance (Cy1, Cy2) of the Y-capacitor specified by the manufacturer.
4.2.4 Physical protection
IPXXB level protection after crash. The test method is carried out in accordance
with A.3. In addition, in order to prevent indirect contact with electric shock, use
a current greater than 0.2A to measure. The resistance between all exposed
conductive parts and the electric platform shall be less than 0.1Ω. When
welding connection is used, it is considered to meet this requirement.
4.2.5 Insulation resistance
4.2.5.1 General requirements
After a vehicle crash, the insulation resistance shall be measured in accordance
with the provisions of 6.2.1 in GB 18384-2020, and shall meet the requirements
If the high-voltage bus in the passenger compartment only has the positive pole
or the negative pole, it is not protected by the IPXXB level, then the energy
stored in the Y-capacitor (TEy1, TEy2) shall be less than 0.2J.
If the positive and negative poles of high-voltage busbars are not protected by
IPXXB level at the same time in the passenger cabin, this clause does not apply.
4.2.5.2 The power system consists of separate DC and AC busbars
If the AC high-voltage bus and the DC high-voltage bus are isolated from each
other, about the insulation resistance between the high-voltage bus and the
electric platform for the DC bus, the minimum value shall be 100Ω/V. For the
4.2.5.3 The power system consists of connected DC and AC busbars
If the AC high-voltage bus and the DC high-voltage bus are conductively
connected to each other, the minimum insulation resistance between the high-
voltage bus and the electric platform shall be 500Ω/V. If after the crash, all AC
high-voltage busbars meet the physical protection requirements specified in
4.2.4, or the AC voltage is equal to or less than 30V according to the test method
specified in A.1, then the minimum insulation resistance between the high-
voltage bus and the electric platform shall be 100Ω/V.
4.3 Electrolyte leakage requirements
from the REESS to the passenger compartment, and no more than 5.0L of
electrolyte shall overflow from the REESS. If the electrolyte cannot be
distinguished from other liquids, all liquids shall be included.
4.4 REESS requirements
4.4.1 REESS mobile requirements
The REESS in the passenger compartment shall be kept in the installation
position. REESS components shall be kept in its enclosure. Any part of REESS
located outside the passenger compartment shall not enter the passenger
compartment.
Within 30 minutes after the crash, REESS shall not explode or catch fire.
5 Test procedures
5.1 Vehicle preparation before the test
5.1.1 Pure electric vehicles and externally rechargeable hybrid vehicles shall
be fully charged according to 5.1 of GB/T 18385-2005.
5.1.2 non-externally charged hybrid electric vehicles are prepared for the test
according to the normal running state of the vehicle.
5.1.3 The crash test of pure electric vehicles and externally rechargeable hybrid
vehicles shall be carried out within 24 hours after the vehicle is charged.
accordance with the relevant regulations of GB 11551.
5.1.5 Other conditions of the vehicle undergoing side impact test shall be
   
相关标准:  GB/T 17729-2023  GB/T 38698.2-2023
 
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