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标准编号: QC/T 533-2020 (QC/T533-2020)
中文名称: 商用车驱动桥总成
英文名称: Commercial Vehicle Drive Axles Assembly
行业: 汽车行业标准 (推荐)
中标分类: T21
字数估计: 19,162
发布日期: 2020-12-09
实施日期: 2021-04-01
旧标准 (被替代): QC/T 534-1999; QC/T 533-1999
标准依据: 工业和信息化部公告2020年第48号
发布机构: 工业和信息化部

QC/T 533-2020: 商用车驱动桥总成
QC/T 533-2020 英文名称: Commercial Vehicle Drive Axles Assembly
中华人民共和国汽车行业标准
QC/T 533-2020代替 QC/T 533 1999, QC/T 534--1999
商用车驱动桥总成
中华人民共和国工业和信息化部发布
1 范围
本文件规定了商用车驱动桥总成的技术要求和台架试验方法。
本文件适用于商用车驱动桥总成,乘用车驱动桥总成和电驱动桥总成等可参照本文件执行。
2 规范性引用文件
下列文件中的内容通过文中的规范性引用而构成本文件必不可少的条款。其中,注日期的引
用文件,仅该日期对应的版本适用于本文件;不注日期的引用文件,其最新版本(包括所有的修
改单)适用于本文件。
3 术语和定义
QC/T 1126 《汽车驱动桥术语及定义》界定的以及下列术语和定义适用于本文件。
4 技术要求
4.1 桥壳垂直弯曲刚度
满载轴荷时,每米轮距最大变形量应不大于 l.4mm 。
4.2 桥壳垂直弯曲静强度
桥壳垂直弯曲静强度后备系数 K :牵引车应大于 5,载货汽车、载客汽车应大于 6。
4.3 桥壳疲劳
垂直弯由疲劳最低寿命
4.4 驱动桥总成温升
饱和温差上限值见表 l ,且润滑油温度一时间关系曲线应平滑无突变。
4.5 驱动桥总成润滑
润滑情况应符合产品技术条件要求。
4.6 驱动桥总成噪声
应符合产品技术条件要求。
4.7 驱动桥总成效率
应符合产品技术条件要求。
4.8 驱动桥总成静扭疲劳
静扭强度后备系数应大于 1.8。
4.9 驱动桥总成齿轮疲劳
齿轮弯曲疲劳
反拖齿轮疲劳
齿轮接触疲劳
4.10 驱动桥轮间差速器疲劳
总加载运转时间不得低于 38h。试验后样品允许出现轻微磨损、点蚀等,但差速功能不应失效。
5 试验方法
5.1 桥壳垂直弯曲刚度
5.1.1 试验样品
5.1.1.1 试验样品应为非独立悬架驱动桥桥壳。
5.1.1.2 试验样品应符合设计图纸要求,数量不少于 l 件。
5.1.1.3 全浮式半轴结构的驱动桥桥壳在试验时,应安装配套减速器壳,后盖及附件(桥壳焊接
附件、放油塞等)也应保留或安装在桥壳上;半浮式半轴结构的驱动桥桥壳在试验时,除安装和保
留上述相关零部件和附件外,还应将半轴等部件按照实际工作状态,安装到桥壳上。
5.1.2 试验设备及装置
液压伺服试验系统或其他能够施加载荷的装置,以及变形测量装置、力传感器等。变形测量
误差应在±0.01mm 范围;力测量相对误差应在±1%范围。
5.1.3 试验方法
5.1.3.1 把样品按实际承载状态安装,加载位置为桥壳承受汽车重量的受力点中心,支点为该桥
壳轮距相应位置。
5.1.3.2 安装完成后,应保证施加载荷方向与桥壳轴管中心线垂直,支点沿桥壳轴管中心线方向
自由度不受限,以适应试验加载变形不致运动干涉。
5.1.3.3 样品安装之后预加载至满载轴荷 2~3 次,卸载后进行正式测量。
5.1.3.4 卸载至零后,调整变形测量装置至零位,测点位置不应少于 9 点。测点位置见图 l 和图 2。
5.1.3.5 连续缓慢加载至规定载荷:牵引车桥壳为 2.0 倍满载轴荷,载货汽车、载客汽车桥壳为
2.5 倍满载轴荷。在载荷从零施加到规定载荷期间,记录各测点处变形量至少 8 次,且必须包含加
载至满载轴荷与规定载荷时刻各测点的变形量。每根桥壳最少测量 3 遍,每次试验开始时都应把变
形测量装置调至零位。
5.1.4 数据处理
5.1.4.1 将满载轴荷下,每个测点测得的 3 次变形数据,分别减去因支点刚性、间隙等引起的误
差值后(误差根据每个测点与支点距离按比例折算),选取其中最大值作为该测点最终变形值。
5.1.4.2 计算满载轴荷下桥壳最大变形量(mm)与轮距(m)的比值。
5.1.4.3 绘出满载轴荷和规定载荷下各测点的变形量(均需要减去支点引起的误差值),并连成线。
5.2 桥壳垂直弯曲静强度
5.2.1 试验样品
同 5.1.1 。
5.2.2 试验设备及装置
液压伺服试验系统或其他能够施加载荷的装置,力传感器等。力测量相对误差应在土1%范围。
5.2.3 试验方法
5.2.3.1 按照 5.1.3.1 ~ 5.1.3.3 执行。
5.2.3.2 连结缓慢加载直至样品破坏,中间不得反复。记录失效(断裂或严重塑性变形)载荷3
5.2.4 数据处理
按式(1)计算桥壳垂直弯曲静强度后备系数。
5.3 桥壳在劳试验
5.3.1 试验样品
每种桥壳疲劳样品数量不少于 3 件,其他要求同 5.1.10
5.3.2 试验设备及装置
液压伺服试验系统或其他能够施加载荷的装置,力传感器等。力测量相对误差应在±1%范围,
5.3.3 试验方法
5.3.3.1 桥壳垂直弯曲疲劳
5.3.3.1.1 试验载荷波形为正弦波,牵引车桥壳试验载荷范围为(0.1±0.02)倍至 2.0 倍满载轴荷,
载货汽车、载客汽车桥壳试验载荷范围为(0.1±0.02)倍至 2.5 倍满载轴荷 3 试验频率宜在 2Hz~8Hz
之间。
5.3.3.1.2 样品的安装要求同 5.1.3.1 和 5.1.3.20
5.3.3.1.3 预加载至最大试验载荷 3 次,卸载后开始试验。
5.3.3.1.4 进行至技术要求规定的试验次数,或至样品损坏。记录试验结束时的试验次数,以及
样品状况。
5.3.3.2.1 试验载荷波形为半正弦波3试验频率直在 0.5Hz~3Hz之间。任选样品左侧或右侧进行。
5.3.3.2.2 样品按实车状态安装,将力臂固定在制动底板安装面上。载荷作用于轮胎滚动半径 R
处,方向平行于汽车纵向平面。当所配车辆发动机前置时,全浮式半轴结构的驱动桥桥壳制动疲劳
试验示意图见图 3,半浮式半轴结构的驱动桥桥壳制动疲劳试验示意图见图 4;当所配车辆发动机
后置时, F1 、 F2 方向和图示相反。
5.3.3.2.3 应分别预加载 Fi 、 F1 各 3 次,卸荷后开始试验。 F1 、 F2 均为 0.3 倍满载轴荷。
5.3.3.2.4 单个试验循环应包含 4 次前向加载(F,)和 l 次后向加载(F1)。
5.3.3.2.5 进行至技术要求规定的循环次数,或至样品损坏。记录试验结束时的循环次数,以及
样品状况3
5.3.3.3.1 试验载荷波lf3为正弦波,范罔为(一0.2~+0.4)倍满载轴荷(“-” 表示从桥壳中心指向
轮端)。试验频率宜在 0.5Hz~3Hz 之间。任选样品左侧或右侧进行。
5.3.3.3.2 样品按实车状态安装,载荷施加于横向载荷受力点中心(即轮胎接地点处),方向平行
于桥壳轴管中心线;全浮式半轴结构的驱动桥桥壳横向疲劳试验示意见图 5,半浮式半轴结构的驱
动桥桥壳横向疫芳试验示意见图 60
5.3.3.3.3 预加载至试验载荷 3 次,卸载后开始试验。
5.3.3.3.4 进行至技术要求规定的试验次数,或至样品损坏。记录试验结束时的试验次数,以及
样品状况。
5.4 驱动桥总成温升试验
5.4.1.1 试验样品应符合设计图纸要求,数量不少于 l 件。
5.4.1.2 进行贯通桥总成试验时,应锁止轴间差速器。
5.4.2 试验设备及装置
油流温升试验台或类似试验装置,温度传感器等。转速测量误差应在±2r/min 范围,温度测量
误差应在±0.5℃范围。
5.4.3 试验方法
5.4.3.1 按产品技术要求加注润滑油。
5.4.3.2 驱动桥安装倾角与实车空载状态一致。
5.4.3.3 将温度传感器安装在放油塞上。对于轮边减速驱动桥,应同时在左右轮边减速器内安装

QC/T 533-2020
QC
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.040.50
T 21
Replacing QC/T 533-1999, QC/T 534-1999
Commercial Vehicle Drive Axles Assembly
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 09, 2020
IMPLEMENTED ON: APRIL 01, 2021
Issued by: Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of PRC
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 6
1 Scope ... 9
2 Normative References ... 9
3 Terms and Definitions ... 9
4 Technical Requirements ... 11
5 Test Methods ... 12
Commercial Vehicle Drive Axles Assembly
1 Scope
This document specifies the technical requirements and bench test methods for
commercial vehicle drive axle assembly.
This document is applicable to commercial vehicle drive axle assembly, and passenger
vehicle drive axle assembly and electric drive axle assembly can be implemented with
reference to this document.
2 Normative References
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For the
dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this
document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the
amendments) is applicable to this document.
QC/T 1126 Automotive Drive Axle Terminology and Definition
3 Terms and Definitions
For the purpose of this document, the following terms and definitions given in QC/T
1126 Automotive Drive Axle Terminology and Definition apply.
3.1 Axle housing vertical bending static strength safety factor
The ratio of the vertical bending failure load to the fully loaded axle load of the axle
housing.
Where:
Kn – vertical bending static strength safety factor;
Pn – vertical bending failure load, in N;
P – fully loaded axle load, in N.
3.7 Saturated temperature difference
The difference between the saturated temperature and the ambient temperature
measured at the corresponding moment.
3.8 Drive axle assembly static torsional strength safety factor
The ratio of the static torsional strength failure torque of the drive axle assembly to the
maximum test torque, Min, of the drive axle assembly.
Where:
Kk – drive axle assembly static torsional strength safety factor;
Mk – drive axle assembly static torsional failure torque, in N • m;
Min – drive axle assembly maximum test torque, in N • m.
4 Technical Requirements
4.1 Axle housing vertical bending rigidity
When fully loaded with axle load, the maximum deformation per meter of wheelbase
shall be no greater than 1.4mm.
4.2 Axle housing vertical bending static strength
Axle housing vertical bending static strength safety factor Kn: tractors shall be greater
than 5, trucks and passenger cars shall be greater than 6.
4.3 Axle housing fatigue
The minimum vertical bending fatigue life: The tractor shall be no less than 8×105 times;
and the truck and passenger car shall be no less than 6×105 times.
The minimum brake fatigue life shall be no less than 8.8×104 cycles.
The minimum lateral bending fatigue life shall be no less than 2×105 times.
4.4 Drive axle assembly temperature-rise
The upper limit of the saturation temperature difference is shown in Table 1; and the
lubricating oil temperature-time relationship curve shall be smooth without sudden
quantity shall be no less than 1 piece.
5.1.1.3 During the test, the drive axle housing of the full-floating half-shaft structure
shall be equipped with a matching reducer housing, and the rear cover and
accessories (welding accessories of the axle housing, oil drain plug, etc.) shall also be
semi-floating half-shaft structure, in addition to installing and retaining the above-
mentioned related parts and accessories, the half-shaft and other components shall
also be installed on the axle housing in accordance with the actual working conditions.
5.1.2 Test equipment and devices
Hydraulic servo test system or other devices capable of applying loads, as well as
deformation measuring devices, force sensors, etc. The error of deformation
measurement shall be within ±0.01mm; the relative error of force measurement shall
be within ±1%.
5.1.3 Test method
centre of the stress point where the axle housing bears the weight of the vehicle, and
the fulcrum is the corresponding position of the axle housing wheel track.
5.1.3.2 After installation, it shall be ensured that the direction of the applied load is
perpendicular to the centreline of the axle tube of the axle housing; and the degree of
freedom of the fulcrum along the centreline of the axle tube of the axle housing is not
limited; so as to adapt to the test loading deformation without movement interference.
5.1.3.3 After the sample is installed, it is preloaded to the fully loaded axle load for 2~3
times; and then the formal measurement is carried out after unloading.
5.1.3.4 After unloading to zero, adjust the deformation measuring device to the zero
of the measuring points are shown in Figures 1 and 2.
measured at each measuring point, thereof, the maximum value is selected as the final
deformation value of the measuring point.
5.1.4.2 Calculate the ratio of the maximum amount of deformation of the axle housing
(mm) to the wheel track (m) under fully loaded axle load.
5.1.4.3 Draw the deformation amount of each measuring point under the fully loaded
axle load and the specified load (all need to subtract the error value caused by the
fulcrum), and connect them into a line.
5.2 Axle housing vertical bending static strength
The same as 5.1.1.
5.2.2 Test equipment and devices
Hydraulic servo test system or other devices capable of applying loads, force sensors,
etc. The relative error of force measurement shall be within ±1%.
5.2.3 Test methods
5.2.3.1 Perform in accordance with 5.1.3.1~5.1.3.3.
5.2.3.2 Continuously and slowly load until the sample is broken, without repeating it in
between. Record the failure (fracture or severe plastic deformation) load.
5.2.4 Data processing
formula (1).
5.3 Axle housing fatigue test
5.3.1 Test sample
The number of fatigue samples for each axle housing shall be no less than 3, and the
other requirements are the same as 5.1.1.
5.3.2 Test equipment and devices
Hydraulic servo test system or other devices capable of applying loads, force sensors,
etc. The relative error of force measurement shall be in the range of ±1%; and the
relative error of force control shall be in the range of ±1%.
5.4.2 Test equipment and devices
Oil flow temperature-rise test bench or similar test device, temperature sensor, etc.
The error of speed measurement shall be within the range of ±2r/min; and the error of
temperature measurement shall be within the range of ±0.5°C.
5.4.3 Test methods
5.4.3.1 Add lubricating oil according to the technical requirements of the product.
5.4.3.2 The installation inclination angle of the drive axle is consistent with the no-load
state of the actual vehicle.
5.4.3.3 Install the temperature sensor on the oil drain plug. For wheel-side reduction
reducers at the same time.
5.4.3.4 Under no-load conditions, the sample shall be operated continuously at an
input speed equivalent to (80±2) km/h forward vehicle speed (when the maximum
vehicle speed is lower than 80km/h, the maximum vehicle speed is taken). When the
lubricating oil temperature does not change more than 0.5 °C within 60min, the test
shall end.
5.4.3.5 Record the sample lubricating oil temperature and ambient temperature at least
once every 30min.
5.4.4 Data processing
calculate the saturated temperature difference.
5.5 Drive axle assembly lubrication test
5.5.1 Test sample
The same as 5.4.1.
5.5.2 Test equipment and devices
Oil flow temperature rise test bench or similar test device. The error of speed
measurement shall be within ±2r/min; and the error of temperature measurement shall
be within the range of ±1°C.
5.5.3 Test methods
5.5.3.2 The samples are installed in the no-load state of the actual vehicle.
5.6.3.4 Operate at no-load at a test input speed equivalent to 50km/h forward speed
for 2h; and control the lubricating oil temperature within 90°C.
5.6.3.5 The sample is operated under the following conditions, and the noise is
measured at each measuring point at the same time.
5.6.3.5.1 The temperature of the lubricating oil is controlled within the range of 85°C ~
90°C.
5.6.3.5.2 Load: No-load, 5%Min, 10%Min, ..., 40%Min. The operating point that exceeds
the rated power of the drive axle shall be exempted from being tested.
5.6.3.5.3 Test input speed: Equivalent to 30km/h, 50km/h, 80km/h (when the maximum
speed is lower than 80km/h, take the maximum speed) forward speed. The reverse
speed is not included.
5.6.3.6 When the difference between the background noise and the noise of the
measurement sample is greater than or equal to 10dB (A), no correction is necessary.
When it is less than 10dB (A), correct it according to Table 2.
Table 2 --Noise Correction Value of Drive Axle Assembly Unit: dB (A)
5.7 Drive axle assembly transmission efficiency test
5.7.1 Test sample
quantity shall be no less than 1 piece.
5.7.1.2 During the through axle assembly test, the inter-axle differential shall not be
locked.
5.7.2 Test equipment and devices
Transmission efficiency test bench or similar device, torque, speed sensor, etc. The
relative error of torque measurement shall be in the range of ±0.2%; the error of speed
measurement shall be in the range of ±1r/min; the error of temperature measurement
shall be in the range of ±1°C.
5.7.3 Test methods
Noise difference value
Correction value
5.8.3.3 Load slowly in the forward direction; and record the torque-angle relationship
curve until any one part fails. Record the torque and rotation angle when the sample
fails, and the damaged part of the sample.
5.8.4 Data processing
Take the lowest value of the torque when the three samples fail, and calculate the static
torsional strength safety coefficient according to Formula (3).
5.9 Drive axle assembly gear fatigue test
The number of samples is no less than 6; and the others are the same as 5.7.1.
5.9.2 Test equipment and devices
Gear fatigue test bench, deformation measuring device and installation ring, etc. The
mounting ring shall not be deformed during the test. The relative error of torque
measurement shall be in the range of ±1%; the error of speed measurement shall be
in the range of ±2r/min; and the error of deformation measurement shall be in the range
of ±0.01mm.
5.9.3 Test methods
5.9.3.1 Take a sample for the gear support rigidity test; and record the test results. The
   
相关标准:  QC/T 463-2022  QC/T 580-2022
 
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